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Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration

Last Updated: 6/22/2012

SAMHSA’s Resource Center to Promote Acceptance,
Dignity and Social Inclusion Associated with
Mental Health (ADS Center)


Books, Articles and Research

Imperial County Mental/Behavioral Health Recovery Resources
This part of the website of Imperial County in California provides information people across the country can use on many topics in behavioral health, including depression, substance use, posttraumatic stress disorder, and recovery. Each behavioral health topic page presents an overview of the topic and sections on subtopics including symptoms, taking action, and personal stories about the topic. The recovery page includes links to wellness and recovery trainings developed with the National Alliance on Mental Illness; Mental Health America; Recovery Innovations; and recovery leaders Mary Ellen Copeland, developer of the Wellness Recovery Action Plan (WRAP), and Shery Mead.

Recovery Resources
This section of the Wellness Recovery Action Plan (WRAP) website presents a range of resources to help people recover from mental and physical health problems and addictions, primarily through WRAP. WRAP is an evidence-based practice in which people identify resources, learn about wellness tools, and use these resources and tools to create a personal action plan for recovery. This part of the WRAP website includes links to articles on topics including wellness tools, trauma, and using WRAP for specific health issues. It also features links to more than 30 webinars on topics such as writing grant proposals for WRAP, WRAP for kids, and how WRAP can be used in work with veterans and military personnel. The section also includes links to information on crisis and post-crisis planning and to a WRAP blog.

Conceptual framework for personal recovery in mental health: systematic review and narrative synthesis
This article describes a systematic review of published descriptions and models of personal recovery that researchers conducted to create a synthesized conceptual framework of people's experiences of recovery. Their goal was to increase understanding of common elements of recovery to be used in recovery-oriented research and practice. They used 97 papers to create this framework, which, according to the article abstract, includes "(a) 13 characteristics of the recovery journey; (b) five recovery processes comprising: connectedness; hope and optimism about the future; identity; meaning in life; and empowerment (giving the acronym CHIME); and (c) recovery stage descriptions which mapped onto the transtheoretical model of change." Additionally, researchers found that studies focused on certain ethnicities were more likely to show a greater emphasis on spirituality and discrimination, along with other culturally specific aspects of recovery.

Commentary: Clergy Matter
This article discusses the important role that members of the clergy can play in helping congregation members and their families to recognize and address alcohol and other substance use disorders and offer support to promote healing and recovery. The article discusses the importance of educating clergy members about addictions so they can be effective in this important role and identifies strategies to maximize the positive impact of these interventions. The Clergy Education and Training Project is also introduced, along with some of the work those involved in the project are doing to help better prepare and equip faith leaders in fulfilling this role.

Living WRAP
In this article, Mary Ellen Copeland discusses how introducing someone to the Wellness Recovery Action Plan (WRAP) can help in that person's understanding of his or her own recovery journey and wellness. She describes how "'Living WRAP'" everyday, and sometimes moment to moment, has helped her to manage life stress. Also, she explores the importance of a strong Wellness Toolbox.

Grounded in Faith: Resources on Mental Health and Gun Violence
This report serves as a tool to help ensure that the current debate on gun control does not perpetuate stereotypes and harmful beliefs regarding individuals with mental health issues. It includes a section with statistics on mental health and gun violence and specific faith-based resources for members of the Interfaith Disability Advocacy Coalition (IDAC) and others.

Building Safer Communities: Improving Police Response to Persons with Mental Illness
This document provides recommendations from the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) on how police officers can best help in a situation where an individual with a mental health issue is in need of crisis intervention. It is the hope of the IACP that these recommendations will reduce the chance of any injury or trauma during a mental health-related police response and will increase understanding and collaboration among law enforcement, community members, and people with lived experience.

Health homes: What healthcare's "one stop shopping" models mean for behavioral health-Medicaid health homes: Care coordination in the States
This article describes Section 2703 of the Affordable Care Act, which allows States to provide additional support, by way of the Medicaid "health home" option, to beneficiaries with two or more chronic conditions, including a mental or substance use disorder. The Medicaid "health home" option is based on the patient-centered medical home model, which supports recovery-oriented approaches including self-management support and shared decisionmaking.

What is needed to deliver collaborative care to address comorbidity more effectively for adults with a severe mental illness?
This paper examines collaborative care services for people with severe mental disorders that have worked to address comorbidity and the relationship of mental disorders to homelessness, substance use disorders, unemployment, and other health issues in Australia. Researchers identified many key program components that help make integration of care most effective: shared treatment plans and client records, promotion of a "housing first approach," education for staff about comorbidity, and cross-sector collaboration among agencies when serving shared clients. Cross-sector collaboration is described as a real benefit for consumers and staff and as an effective strategy to move Australia toward having more holistic, socially inclusive mental health care.

Converting partial hospitals to community integrated recovery centers
In this paper, researchers emphasize the effectiveness of community-integrated recovery and other community activities in helping individuals in their recovery. This paper also explores how the transition of partial hospitals into recovery-oriented programs has become a part of systems transformation and some of the steps involved, such as technical assistance and strengths-based assessment of resources and needs.

Mental illness & violence: We need to step up
In this blog post, the author discusses violence in the United States, failures within the country's mental health system, and common stereotypes related to individuals with mental disorders and how these misconceptions feed negative and harmful beliefs about people with mental disorders. These negative and harmful beliefs cause fewer people to seek treatment and even reduce the likelihood of self-disclosure by individuals who have had success in their recovery journeys. The author suggests that self-disclosure from individuals in recovery from mental health issues who are living healthy lives could help with people's exposure to mental health consumers, providing a balance to the violent portrayals of individuals with mental disorders too often presented by the media. He also suggests that self-disclosure could help society, especially individuals in need of treatment, understand that recovery is possible.

Meeting the behavioral health needs of veterans: Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom
With 30 percent of the 2 million active duty and reserve military personnel deployed since 2001 in need of mental health treatment, the challenge of addressing the mental health needs of veterans is a significant one. In this article, the National Council discusses different ways this challenge is being addressed. Although a number of approaches, including evidence-based care and cognitive behavioral therapy, have been shown to be effective in addressing posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression, the focus has also turned to increasing the number of veterans utilizing care and ensuring the availability of care for veterans. This article also explores the benefits of community-based mental health care investments in veterans and the potential economic benefits of addressing veterans' mental health needs.

Native American tribal communities provide hope for overcoming historical trauma
This Peers Envisioning and Engaging in Recovery Services (P.E.E.R.S.) article discusses the historical trauma experienced by many Native American tribal communities and the hope for overcoming it. Suicide, infant mortality, and unemployment rates of Native American tribal communities are among the highest in the country. The historical trauma intervention model described in this article takes an approach to healing that includes four main components: confronting the trauma, understanding the trauma, releasing the pain, and transcending the trauma.

Morbidity and mortality in people with serious mental illness
With individuals with serious mental illnesses dying 25 years earlier than individuals from the general population, this report explores contributing causes to this disparity, like smoking, obesity, and inadequate access to medical care. It also outlines recommendations for improvement. Some suggested solutions for addressing this public health problem include the implementation of care standards for prevention, screening, and treatment; better access and integration with physical healthcare services; and ongoing support for educational resources, such as toolkits, to encourage healthy choices and promote personal responsibility. This report also addresses provider agencies directly, highlighting the important role of a hopeful message of recovery and the support of wellness and personal empowerment to help promote individual recovery efforts.

Under the microscope. Peer support: A valued part of recovery, wellness and health reform
This article by the National Association of County Behavioral Health and Developmental Disability Directors (NACBHDD) discusses the value of peer support and its role in demonstrating that recovery is attainable. This article recognizes peer support as not only a movement but also as a form of delivering care and an evidence-based practice. It also discusses the importance of expanding the ways peer support is utilized and incorporating peer support services into various types of reform, such as insurance and quality reform. In addition, it lists potential action steps to help advance peer support services, provides recommendations and solutions for what can be done at the national and State level to address health disparities, and discusses the importance of integrating behavioral health and primary care services, including the challenges and opportunities involved.

Final report of the World Conference on Social Determinants of Health
The World Conference on Social Determinants of Health, brought together in 2011 in Brazil by the World Health Organization (WHO), was a global conference that sought to encourage action on the social determinants of health. This event provided an opportunity for stakeholders to share their experiences with strategies for reducing health inequities and to discuss potential next steps of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health. This final report, available for download, provides a full summary of this important conference.

Peers and peer-led interventions for people with schizophrenia
The authors of this article discuss key principles and types of peer-led interventions and their success in nurturing recovery for individuals with schizophrenia and other mental disorders. The three types of interventions explored include self-help, consumer-operated services, and peer support services.

Prevention, treatment, and recovery supports for those with substance use problems: Opportunities for enhanced access and quality of care
While recognizing the negative impact that substance use disorders can have on an individual, one's family, and community, this article explores ways to improve access to prevention and care for substance use disorders.

Supporting workers with mental health problems to retain employment: Users' experiences of a UK job retention project
Researchers set out to gain a deeper understanding of the connections between challenges experienced in the workplace by people with mental disorders, support received during employment, and job retention. This study showed that feelings of guilt and self-blame among consumers are barriers to job retention but that, with support, individuals are able to improve communication with their employer including communication to seek accommodations, and experience increased confidence in their self-advocacy abilities. Individual interviews were used to collect data that revealed that peer support groups were a useful intervention that helped individuals with mental disorders retain employment. Researchers concluded that interventions that focus on the employee, his or her work, and the workplace offer more hope than those that focus solely on the individual for improving employment among individuals with mental disorders.

The mental health recovery movement and family therapy, part I: Consumer-led reform of services to persons diagnosed with severe mental illness
This article outlines key concepts of mental health recovery for marriage and family therapists. It provides a history and practical means of implementing a recovery-oriented approach with clients. The introduction of this approach comes as a result of a 2004 consensus statement from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that called for public mental health organizations to incorporate a recovery approach to their work with individuals with mental and substance use disorders.

An examination of the integration of Certified Peer Specialists into community mental health centers
In this report, researchers describe the formal role of Certified Peer Specialists (CPSs) in the mental health field. They explore the experience, responsibilities, and activities of a CPS. The recent incorporation of CPSs in community mental health centers is also examined. Researchers found overall that CPSs have been received well in mental health centers and are satisfied with their role within this setting.

Integrated care for Asian American, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander communities: A blueprint for action; Consensus statements and recommendations
This report covers a meeting in August 2011 of 40 stakeholders committed to enhancing the lives of Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AANHPI) communities. The stakeholders met to discuss how to create a national agenda to review benefits of integrated care for AANHPIs. The group included providers, consumers, policy makers, and healthcare administrators in primary health care, integrated care, mental health, substance use, and disabilities. The Blueprint for Action discusses the need for integrated care to have a holistic, public health approach that works across the life span, as well as the need to have research and data that include AANHPIs. The blueprint includes recommendations to inform both governmental and non-governmental partners of culturally and linguistically responsive approaches and models of care.

Darryl Strawberry opens up: Baseball legend discusses overcoming depression
In this article Darryl Strawberry shares some of his life experiences as a professional baseball player, what it was like growing up in a home with an abusive father, and how he dealt with his depression and substance use as an African-American man. Strawberry discusses the common misconceptions regarding mental and substance use disorders in the African-American community and makes the point that depression does not discriminate. Through his memoir Straw: Finding My Way, he hopes to inspire all people experiencing mental health challenges to get help.

Former Celtics player discusses his struggle with addiction in new book
Chris Herren, a former National Basketball Association (NBA) player, began his recovery journey to address a substance use disorder years ago. In his book, Basketball Junkie: A Memoir, he tells how he came close to losing everything, including his loved ones, and how he has regained control of his life.

Resolution on APA endorsement of the concept of recovery for people with serious mental illness
A significant body of data now shows a rise in numbers of individuals with mental disorders improving over time, leading full, independent lives. With Federal and State agencies recommending a shift to treatment that is less symptom-oriented, the concept of recovery is expanding. In this resolution, a rationale for the concept of recovery is explored and recommendations on promoting this concept through the American Psychological Association (APA) are discussed.

Social firms: A means for building employment skills and community integration
In Europe, social firms are commercial businesses that create opportunities for work and social integration for people with challenges to employment. This article describes a case study in which a Norwegian social firm worked to provide employment for workers with mental and substance use disorders. The article also discusses the value of this approach as a training option, as a means of supporting social integration, and as a method of countering negative and harmful attitudes and beliefs about people with mental health problems.

Service providers' experiences and perspectives on recovery-oriented mental health system reform
This research article discusses the results of a qualitative study in which researchers gathered information about service providers' experience with and views of a recovery-oriented approach. Positive attitudes toward recovery-oriented reform, as well as challenges associated with this approach, are discussed, as well as recommendations for ways to support implementation of recovery-oriented practice.

The road from addiction recovery to productivity: Ending discrimination against people with alcohol and drug problems
This article explores the discrimination commonly experienced by individuals with substance use disorders, including discrimination in policies that limit employment and health care. Researchers discuss the role of these discriminatory actions on one's recovery and a project, Join Together, that works to address discrimination.

WRAP Plus (formerly Living Without Depression and Manic Depression)
The Wellness Recovery Action Plan (WRAP) was developed by Mary Ellen Copeland, Ph.D., as a tool for individuals in recovery to help them feel empowered, better their quality of life, support them as they work toward life goals, and decrease negative feelings or behaviors throughout the recovery journey. In this book, WRAP Plus (formerly Living Without Depression and Manic Depression), she shares findings on mental health recovery, guidance on how to create a WRAP, and recovery stories from individuals who have thrived as a result of their own WRAPs.

Promoting self-determination and financial security through innovative asset building approaches
This research article explores the benefits of Individual Development Account (IDA) programs and how they help in the recovery journey and build confidence among individuals with mental disorders. Some challenges associated with IDAs and the future direction of this program are also discussed.

Building a cross disability peer employment support model: Report to the New York State Medicaid infrastructure grant
This report examines the prevalence of unemployment and underemployment among individuals with disabilities. Its findings identify peer support as a way of improving social capital, one's relationships and connections outside the mental health and addictions systems, and social networks for this group. This increase in social interactions was found to increase individuals' employment connections and opportunities. Researchers offer recommendations to help in developing peer employment support models to help individuals with disabilities secure employment.

Health care and public service use and costs before and after provision of housing for chronically homeless persons with severe alcohol problems
This study examined whether housing individuals experiencing both chronic homelessness and alcoholism using a Housing First approach would result in a reduction in the use and costs of health care. The Housing First model separates housing from clinical issues by addressing homelessness first, providing individuals with permanent housing without prerequisites for treatment and sobriety, and then supporting them in addressing clinical or other issues. Researchers found that the Housing First intervention not only resulted in significant cost savings per person each month but also helped people remain in housing longer and helped them reduce their alcohol consumption.

Project-based Housing First for chronically homeless individuals with alcohol problems: Within-subjects analyses of 2-year alcohol trajectories
This study examined a Housing First nonabstinence-based program for chronically homeless individuals and its impact on residents' alcohol use. Researchers found a significant decrease in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems over the course of their 2-year study. They attributed this decrease not only to less difficult rules for residents to follow but also to support and encouragement shared between and among program residents.

A permanent home that allows drinking helps homeless drink less
This article discusses the successful approach of one supportive housing program for people who have experienced long-term homelessness. The program allows residents to continue to drink alcohol while working towards their recovery from alcoholism. The author identified several factors which contributed to the program's success, including easier rules to follow, support from fellow residents and staff, and an overall attitude that does not look down on residents for drinking but rather invites them to be more open about it.

Substance abuse prevention dollars and cents: A cost-benefit analysis
This report explores the importance of supporting substance abuse prevention programs. It analyzes substance use, including that of youth, costs of substance abuse to the country, and some potential cost savings of successful prevention programs and policies.

Integration of mental health, substance use, and primary care services: Embracing our values from a client and family member perspective
The focus of this paper is to provide perspectives of clients and family members about the integration of treatment of mental and substance use disorders within primary care settings. This paper discusses core values such as wellness-focused and person-centered treatment, the importance of involving persons with lived experience and family members in local planning efforts, and recommendations for stakeholders and for self-advocacy/self-management support. It also provides information, resources, and tools to support wellness, recovery, and hope.

Psychiatry and recovery-oriented practice: A situational analysis
This report provides an overview of a collaborative project of the American Psychiatric Association, the American Association of Community Psychiatrists, and an advisory group comprising psychiatrists, other mental health professionals, and consumers. This project worked to develop and share educational materials for psychiatrists to encourage their use of recovery-oriented practices. SAMHSA's 10 recovery components are discussed and barriers, strengths, and opportunities associated with this approach are examined. Also, in this report, psychiatrists' current understanding and use of recovery-oriented practices is explored.

Research and Practice Brief 2: Self-Determination, Beneficence, Choice, and Adherence
This brief highlights the new direction of the mental and substance use disorder treatment field which is moving toward the incorporation of self-determination and increased consumer/survivor choice throughout treatment. It gives a functional definition of self-determination and explores related topics such as autonomy and rational decision-making processes. In an effort to provide direction to providers in this field, this brief offers a conceptual foundation for this transformation in services and describes the efforts of the Center on Adherence and Self-Determination (CASD) to provide guidance.

Tenemos Voz National Latino Consumer Network
This network is comprised of Latinos with mental and substance use disorders who work to promote holistic approaches to health and wellness in recovery through equal access to treatment. The network engages in advocacy to influence policy, eliminate disparities, and improve treatment outcomes. It also provides educational and networking opportunities and support for consumer/survivors.

Policy Responses to Social Exclusion: Towards Inclusion?
This article defines social exclusion and addresses various aspects of life related to the concept including the labor market, education, health, housing, and access to services. This publication goes on to describe policy responses to social exclusion and identifies themes and issues influencing policy initiatives. The ways in which past policy interventions have created or contributed to current issues are discussed as well as recommendations for developing effective policies to reduce exclusionary practices and evaluate these efforts.

What Are Peer Recovery Support Services?
This paper is an introduction to peer recovery support services, which are designed and delivered by individuals who have experienced substance use disorders and recovery. It describes ways these services engage people in their recovery process and reduce the chance of a relapse. Other aspects of peer recovery support services discussed are the types of peer support, its adaptability, the value of these services, and key principles on which these services are based.

The Imperative of a New Approach to Warrior and Veteran Care
Recognizing the alarming rates of depression, brain injury, and suicide among active service members and veterans, this policy brief describes the need for: a new model for dispersing federal funds; changes to the relationship between the Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Veterans Affairs (VA); and inclusion of private-sector stakeholders, such as nonprofit organizations, in addressing these issues. It provides current statistics on service member and veteran mental and substance use disorders and recommendations for the White House, the DOD, and the VA to improve care.

Introduction to "Building communities from the inside out: A path toward finding and mobilizing a community's assets"
This publication is an introduction to a guide on rebuilding troubled communities that emphasizes identifying and building upon community strengths rather than focusing on deficits within the community. It includes success stories of communities that have thrived and the role that the asset-based community development strategy has played in developing steps toward community growth. This introduction explores ways the traditional approach has failed communities, identifies problems, and discusses solutions and assets of a community, including those of individuals, associations, and institutions.

Mental health and inequity: A human rights approach to inequality, discrimination, and mental disability
This article discusses the value in taking a human rights approach to the inequality experienced by individuals with behavioral health problems. A rights-based approach emphasizes the respect of individuals' dignity, independence, and freedom to make choices. In this article, the author explores issues of terminology, advocacy movements, and the implications of international treaties for responses to discrimination and disparities within and outside the healthcare system.

Recovery Begins with Hope
This report focuses on how to make significant change in behavioral health services and policies. It describes the journey of two mental health trusts that have implemented the recovery approach in their policies and are working to put it into practice. The recovery approach is based on three key principles: hope, respect, and opportunity. This report does not suggest recovery as an alternative to clinical treatment but rather a more positive method of supporting behavioral health consumers that values collaboration and individuals' ability to learn to relate and reorganize their lives.

Americans believe in prevention and recovery from addictions
This SAMHSA report discusses the findings of a survey regarding the general public's perceptions relating to prevention and recovery from substance use disorders and their attitudes towards people who have substance use problems. The report found that a majority of Americans have positive feelings about prevention and recovery from substance use problems, with three-fourths of the population believing that recovery is possible from addiction to alcohol, prescription drugs, and marijuana.

Beyond the storms: Reflections on personal recovery in Devon
This book is a collection of personal stories of recovery shared by individuals who have experienced behavioral health problems and emotional distress. As individuals share their journeys through recovery they describe the despair and difficulty they were confronted with, as well as the hope, endurance, triumph, and determination associated with the recovery process. This book also describes techniques and makes suggestions that readers can use to manage their own recovery such as, developing a WRAP plan, acknowledging small achievements, and taking personal responsibility.

Recovery and homelessness services: New directions for the field
This article examines recovery and recovery-oriented care. The authors suggest recommendations for integrating recovery-oriented care into the homeless assistance network while considering how widespread certain behavioral health problems---including substance abuse, mental health problems, and traumatic disorders---are among chronically homeless individuals.

Recovery: A Philosophy of Hope and Resilience
This newsletter emphasizes programs that support recovery from substance abuse and addiction, research on recovery, and National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month.

Transforming the nation's health: Next steps in mental health promotion
In this commentary, A. Kathryn Power, Director of the SAMHSA Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, advocates for a public health approach to behavioral health promotion and behavioral disorder prevention. She discusses the relationship of behavioral health to overall health and presents a strategy to build resilience at the individual, family, and community levels. She also describes SAMHSA's work to attain the goals within the strategy.

Housing first services to people who are homeless with co-occurring and mental illness and substance abuse
This article details a study in which researchers contrasted outcomes for two groups of adults with co-occuring mental and substance use disorders who had been homeless. One group was in a Housing First program, the other in standard care. Housing First provides consumers with permanent, independent housing without requiring them beforehand to attain sobriety and enter treatment. Standard care requires participants to enter treatment before being placed in housing. After 48 months, researchers found no statistically significant differences in alcohol and drug use between the groups.

Physicians-in-training attitudes toward caring for and working with patients with alcohol and drug abuse diagnoses
This study is designed to identify the progression of attitudinal shifts over time of physicians-in-training toward caring for people who receive substance abuse treatment.

Discrimination, historical loss and enculturation: Culturally specific risk and resiliency factors for alcohol abuse among American Indians
This report investigates the effects of discrimination, historical loss and enculturation on meeting diagnostic criteria for 12-month alcohol abuse among American Indians who share a common culture in the upper Midwest.

New York City Voices
New York City Voices includes articles on many mental health topics, such as recovery from mental health and substance use challenges, support resources, wellness practices, and public policy. Authors include mental health consumers, ex-patients /survivors, family members, and mental health and substance use treatment providers. Currently in blog format, the publication was previously at a different Web site; archived issues are now available at this Web site:

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This Web site was developed under contract with the Office of Consumer Affairs in SAMHSA’s Center for Mental Health Services. The views, opinions, and content provided on this Web site do not necessarily reflect the views, opinions, or policies of SAMHSA or HHS. The resources listed in this Web site are not all-inclusive and inclusion on this Web site does not constitute an endorsement by SAMHSA or HHS.